Spatialized Water Climatological Balance and droughts in Rio do Peixe Basin - West of Santa Catarina State
1Linheira, G.; 2Oliveira, F.H.; 3Rampazzo, S.E.; 4Gerente, J.; 5Dal Santo, M.; 6Pandolfo, C.; 7Ricce, W.S.
Droughts risk are considered the most common type of natural disaster and affects a lot of people around the planet. This happens because droughts reach extensive areas and continues during a long time when compared with other types of disasters like storms or earthquakes. In Brazil the official registration indicates 16.944 occurrences of droughts among 1991 and 2010. The total of these registers, 25,06% happened in the South region, located specially in the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. In Santa Catarina these droughts episodes are concentrated in the West mesoregion, and causes a lot of losses on productive sectors like agriculture and livestock. Considering the recurrence of drought in the West mesoregion of Santa Catarina a research project has been developed between partnership of UDESC and Santa Catarina State Civil Defense, whose the main goal is to analyze the evolution of environmental and social factors that influence/reflect the occurrence of droughts. Thus, this Project also has been developed an master degree dissertation called “Spatialized climatology water balance and the occurrence of droughts”. The main goal of this project is evaluate the spatial relationship between the occurs of droughts and the official registration of emergency situations in the Rio do Peixe Basin, located in West mesoregion among the years 2001 and 2010. The main understanding of this research about risk droughts is related with the decrease of expect precipitation level to a specific area. Therefore, droughts start when the precipitation level occurs in smaller amount then the level of evapotranspiration. By another hand, droughts occurs when there is more water getting out of the system than getting in, compromising the soil moisture and even the rivers output. One scientific method to quantify and analyze the drought occurrence is by Water Climatology Balance method, developed by Thorntwaine e Mather (1955). Since the geotechnology was developed, the Water Climatology Balance could be spatialized by thematic map risk, providing geographic distribution (concentration) of drought in the study area. For develop this research the first step is collect data about precipitation and temperature from 14 meteorological stations. Based on temperature data the evapotranspiration levels can be estimated. Besides, following the methodology the next step is calculate the Water Climatology Balance according with the Thorntwaine e Mather (1955) method for each year among 2001 and 2010. Considering the Water Climatology Balance result it will be done the data interpolation using exponencial kriging method evidenced by Cecílio et al. (2012) as the best interpolator aiming to get spatial represent of Water Climatology Balance.
Water Climatological Balance; Spatialized Droughts; Drought Map RiskFull Text ()