To Smarter Spatial Computing: A Epistemological Perspective
Cartography has inevitably come to an era of taking computing as an important trend. Theoretical Cartography has also been coupled with Geographic Information Science for major cartographic activities are taking place under the circumstance of information and communication technology (ICT). It’s time to investigate how smarter computing system will be related to Cartography paradigm, and how traditional cartographic theories can be tested as different hypothesis in a networked, mobile and intelligent computing world. This paper will propose a new theoretical and methodological framework which deal with this paradigm level evolution of Cartography toward smarter spatial computing system from viewpoint of Epistemology. New tide of integration of hardware, software and data, innovation in turn in the field of ICT will be addressed. Computer science is experiencing metaphorical Evolutions because of distributing and mobile computing. Office to mobile, virtual representation to embedded reality, cognitive information model to cognitive computing model are three most notable evolutions among them. Computing system under epistemological paradigm are discussed. Whole cognitive process oriented computing system is proposed which compares cognition and computing processes under epistemological paradigm. Among sensation, perception, memory, thinking and attention, and also learning, language, reasoning, association, conception, pattern recognition, problem solving etc，memory and thinking process are mostly concerned until now which corresponds to database and algorithm in computing system. A smarter computing system should be whole process oriented instead. As ICT developing, computing system begins to connect with cognitive space. Automatic data collection of visual, auditory, tactile，kinesthetic data is possible. We have more mobile or wearable device connected with biological human. Distributed sensors extends human’s senses. Process abilities of computers are much stronger than ever before so that we can see information process are transfer from graphics to image, large scale to small scale, static to dynamic, 2D to 3D, outdoor to indoor, spatiotemporal exampling to data stream. The function of map and GIS is shifting from abstract thinking side to sensation system side. We compare cognitive processes with smarter computing components with including sensation and data collection, memory and multi-level storage, thinking and mining, attention and computing strategy at last. In this part, big data are mainly challenge to the smarter spatio-temporal computing system. Even more cognitive processes can be analog to spatial computing system, which can be a very promising test-bed for new cartographic paradigm development under the new era of computing. Finally a geo-AR system is given as a case study as a cognitive mobile computing system. From theory of three worlds (physical, cognitive and digital) we investigate several key issues which are related cartographic paradigm shifting and computing metaphor, including focus back to reality, new paradigm of GIS of shifting forward to sense and perception, smart map on the mobile, HCI in map reading and map use process, new map content and new type of overlay between virtual and real. Conclusions include the paradigm shifting from traditional to cognitive computing system is investigated. Paradigm will remain stable with fascinating technical development. Sensation and mining are two typical progress in smart computing system as well as all other cognitive processes. Paradigm review is needed for guidance and forecasting in technology development.
Epistemology; Cognitive Process; Smarter Computing